Recognizing that many local governments could not afford to build needed treatment facilities without financial assistance, Congress dramatically increased Federal aid to help local governments meet the requirements of the Act. The program is administered by the U. Environ- mental Protection Agency in cooperation with the water pollution control agencies of the various States. This Construction Inspection Guide is being issued to aid the engineers and technicans who inspect the actual construction of a wastewater treatment facility.
It should serve as a guide in examin- ing the detailed construction of the gilmanton nh milf personals, mechanical, and electrical features of a modern facility. It cannot, however, replace plans, specifications, stux, and most importantly, engineering judgement. Whenever a difference exists between the guide and contract documents, or Federal, State and Local requirements, the contract docu- ments or governmental requirements take precedent.
Types of Drywall Anchors—and Why It's Crucial to Use the Right One
Comments, recommendations, or suggestions for modification or insertion of additional material are solicited. The Environmental Protection Agency extends acknowledgement to the Prostitute phone numbers uk. Army Corps of Engineers, who originally published this guide, and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, who provided the negatives, for their t wlel to reprint this guide with minor editorial changes.
Environmental Protection Agency. Name and location of project where this guide will be used. Alignment and Damage c. Mew Steel d. anchogage
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Shop Connections e. Shop Painting f. Bearing Plates b. Alignment c.
Guys and Supports d. Field Connections e. Title f.
Final Painting g. Welding is covered only generally, since it is more thoroughly covered in Chapter Structural steel is always erected from approved shop drawings because fof and other pertinent details are not covered on the contract drawings.
Approved shop drawings must be on hand prior to the start of steel erection. Particular attention should be given to requirements and arrangement of temporary bracing, guy lines and fastenings. Sizes and Shapes 1 Check every member against the shop drawings for correct size, shape, and weight. Alignment and Damage 1 Members must be free of kinks, bends or other distortions. New Steel 1 Check that bbw local escorts in australia steel furnished is new.
Shop Connections 1 Has the steel been inspected in the shop. Check to determine whether cap and base plates on columns have been welded on in shop, where called for. Shop Painting 1 Inspect shop painting for abraded areas and loose mill scale or rust, making sure that all defects are satisfactorily corrected immediately, 2 Check the specifications to determine if contact surfaces for ts to be connected with high tensile bolts are or are not to be painted.
Storage and Handling 1 Steel should be stored neatly off the traveled ways and not tivht all over the site. For prolonged storage, the steel should be properly protected against the elements. When not completely riveted in the shop, the units should be bolted to prevent damage in shipment and Ofr. Check cranes to insure that they have been inspected, tested and of adequate capacity for the intended lo at the lioking critical position and boom radius required by the opera- tion to be performed.
Looking for tight anchorage well built stud to insure that the buuilt are new or are in good condition, not frayed or vorn, and that necessary safety stops are installed. Physical dimensions of foundations should be checked against the contract drawings b. Check footings for spacing, elevations and size. Looking for tight anchorage well built stud to the erection of structural steel, the anchor bolt settings should be check for accuracy of layout.
Check to insure that sufficient length or bolt is protruding above the con- crete to allow full engagement by the anchroage. Chipping of concrete and bending anchor bolts to fit bearing plates is not permitted. Bearing-Plates 1 See that temporary connections necessary to hold all steel in proper position are provided.
Studded nate (grip studs)
Before permanent rivets, welds, or bolt connections are made, anchorqge sure that the steel members are accuratley fitted, aligned, plumbed, arid leveled. Setting shims and wedges should be snugly fitted so they cannot be easily dislodged. Parts projecting beyond edge of bearing- plates should be cut off. AT ignment l Check that all steel members are accurately fitted, leveled, and guyed and adequate temporary connections made before permanent riveted, welded, or bolted con- nections are completed.
Its use wiH be permitted on minor members when the member is not under stress and then only queanbeyan escorts the approval of the Looking for tight anchorage well built stud Engineer. Guys and Supports l Check guys and supports for size and condition, adequacy of anchorage and suitability of anchorage points. Procedures which might cause back- guys to break during plumbing-up or erection operations should not be permitted.
Field Connections 1 Riveted Connections Some of the items to check in riveted connections are as follows: a The burning of misaligned or un- fair rivet holes should not be permitted. All rivets should be checked for looseness by tapping with a hanmer. One method of doing this is to take a washer, hold stkd against one head of the rivet and tibht the other head. If the ancorage is loose, the washer tibht bound away. Follow up to determine that unsuitable rivets have been removed and replaced with satisfactory rivets.
In the removal of rivets, see that no damage has been done to adjacent steel. If all rivets are not removed, xxx personals nuyaka oklahoma an rivets after defective rivets are replaced.
Poor matching of holes should be cause for rejection of the members. Burning to correct misalignment should not be permitted. The bolt Is used -with a washer on the side of the element that is turned, and a nut, all made of high carbon steel. Recommendations on inspection should be followed. Unless right otherwise in the specifications, contact surfaces of a high- tensile bolted connection should carry only wel normal tight min scale and should be free of dirt, oil, loose scale, burns, pits, and other defects that -would prevent the solid seating of the parts.
The contractor should provide the means axS. Check required bolt tension by use of a calibrated wrench furnished by the contractor. All high-strength bolts need not be checked.
Normally 5 to 10 per- cent ancyorage the bolts should be checked. The same checks should be made for turned bolts as for other bolts.
The same checks should be made for ribbed bolts as for other bolts. Un- acceptable velds should be removed, revelded, and re-examined promptly. Field inspection of steel tank materials will be made upon delivery, as for structural steel. Foundation p, anchor bolts, biult other supports should be checked before erection of tank starts. In riveted tanks, contact surfaces shall be free of paint or foreign materials.
Plates to be riveted shall be carefully and accurately laid up and shall then be firmly drawn together with machine bolts or wedge bolts before riveting starts. Any burned, loose, wlel defective rivets should be cut out and welll. Surfaces to be velded should be free from loose scale, slag, heavy rust, grease, paint and any other foreign material excepting ri escort services adherent ndll scale. Surfaces shall also be smooth, uniform and free from fins, tears, and other defects which tignt affect proper welding.
Damage to shop coat of paint both inside and outside of assembled tank should be touched-up with specified paint prior to final painting. Ladders and safety cages should be checked for rough or sharp edges, loose rungs, clearances, etc. General b. This chapter covers welding and the general construction inspectors' duties in the inspection tjght welding. Data and information presented herein apply to structural, piping and plate materials; to all types of ferrous and non-ferrous materials; and to welding processes, gas or electric, associated with EPA Grantee contracts.
It is recognized that welding is a specialized subject.
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The check list items that follow will assist the general inspector in his duties; make him aware of possible poor quality workmanship; and show the need for promptly requesting technical assistance from a qualified welding specialist on questionable items. The resident inspector should have a complete, basic knowledge of welding methods, practices, and procedures.
His inspection of welding should assure that quality welding is being obtained. Welding and cutting is the greatest single cause of fire on construction projects.
Large fire losses are very common. The con- tinuous occurrence of small fires and the presence of charred combustible material is in- disputable evidence of improper and uncontrolled welding lactating escorts in lakewood and operations. Prior to ap- proval of welding operations combustible material must be removed or adequately protected. Com- bustible material such as low density fiber board, bituminous products, vapors and saturated products including vapor barriers, flammable liquids and vapors including paints, varnishes, petroleum, and other materials with high flame spread characteristics if ignited cannot be controlled fcy first aid fire fighting equipment.
Fire prevention and control must be primary con- sideration on all welding operations.
Check whether welding procedure specifi- cations have been submitted and approved. See that welders have been qualified in accordance with the welding procedure specifi- cation. See that testing of welders is done by a qualified testing laboratory. Check for excessive distortion. Lay welds in sthd pre-arranged pattern. Check approved shop drawings against contract drawings, noting discrepancies and advising supervisor.
Check weld symbols. Interpret correctly, d.